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War and Remembrance..(Celebrating 2002 Memorial Day (May) this is just draft page as I have not completed all the research and looking to interview some of the people who fought the war in Cagayan Valley. Please ask some of the older folks you know to give me some input). There is nothing better than oral history. Books are nothing but footnotes and having said that, I hope that sometime before Alzheimer’s claims your grandparents’ gifted minds, you have accessed the contents of that generation’s stories. Together you could string a living century of generations. There are books by Ambrose, Manchester, Morrison,  pseudo historians and lately the revisionists, but there is nothing better when you hear the answer to a child asking, “What did you do during the war, Lolo? Where were you?

--Draft-----------

http://www.filipinohome.com------------------UNEDITED----------rough

DRAFT--------------- Flying the kite over the winds of war and postscripts----- (War Memorial- Nueva Vizcaya)

 

All I remember was a spectacular air show, not "da plane" from Fantasy Island.Instead, to the eyes 
of this 5-year old of Isinai Island, it was a roaringsilhouette of liberators celebrating in the sky. 
There were no dogfights,as the air war was already over. There were two kinds of planes, a singlebody 
and another that I would never see again, a double body. The double fuselage inspired my innovation to
build a kite of similar Design that stayed in my mind,as I grew older. The planes were the P-38’s known
as Lightning. They were the most successful US planes as they shot down more Japanese planes than any 
type of aircraft. The winds of war flew these older boys’ kites. They were huge and flew higher.I don’t 
remember much about the Superfortress known as B-29 (except that the name was used as the brand for 
most popular post war cigarette.) They flew over Tokyo at the height of 32,000 feet, whereas the 
Japanese planes flew at 25,000 feet maximum. In a quick bushido move, the Japanese planes were stripped 
of weapons and avionics just to sustain the altitude. Without guns they resorted to ramming the
plane they fearfully called B-san. My kite never made it (higher) beyond the shadows no matter how far 
I let my lines go. Still thinking about it now, if I could only remove the tail or shorten it just enough 
for stabilization, I could angle sharplyto 10 o’clock without slack in my string. Back then; the planes 
became kites to me.I did not know a few years later I would be “flying” a submarine. These were like
planes, but not onboard the carrier. My first job when I volunteered was spreading the underwater “wings” 
by rigging out the bow planes when the submarine dived. The “height” became the depth and they had the 
same kinds of angles and dangles. At that young age, however, my imagination only went as far as what 
I could do with my kites. The Yankee soldiers returned with Macarthur's historical promise. My youngest 
sister at that time was baptized inside St. Ferrer Church that miraculously survived bombing. The godfather 
was a GI, an Americano. This event was just a few days beyond the reach of my memory. His name was Anthony 
Russo and we never heard what happen to him as they continued their campaign towards the Tokyo. The American 
pilgrims, the legionnaires described by Brokaw as the greatest generation preempted assault on America soil 
from December 7, 1941 to September 11, 2001. The remains buried in the Pacific and the largest grave shrine 
outside the US could be found in the Philippines.
 
     
 
 
It was the summer of 1945. The planes were all propeller-driven; fresh from the US war machine 
factory engaging dogfights against the Mitsubishi built Japanese Zeros. Liberator planes from the 
Ford Assembly line engaging the Mitsubishi Bombers. But among the brave pilots were the Mexican 
Air Force, who volunteered for the Philippine war effort. These unknown Mexican bandits might 
not have been as famous as the Black Sheep Squadron, Tuskegee Airmen, or the Doolittle Bombers 
but we certainly could relate to them. The US Army granted their request of assignment in the 
Philippines because of language compatibility and common cultural Spanish background. The Joint 
Mexican-US Defense Commission (JMUSDC), created in Washington DC, coordinated the US and Mexican 
military. The Mexican Government preferred to participate in the liberation of the Philippines, 
due to the historical and cultural connections between both nations. This decision proved beneficial 
beyond the combat aspect, since the MEAF (Mexican Expeditionary Air Force) personnel also became 
a valuable social contact with the Spanish speaking Filipinos. The Mexican Senate authorized sending 
the squadron in 1944 and the unit arrived in Clark Airforce Base in May 1, 1945. They were trained at 
Maxwell Base in Louisiana and other part of the United States before coming to the Philippines. 
They flew the P-47s, forerunners of the famous P-51 Mustang fighter planes. After a short briefing 
from the US Army Air corps, the pilots were loaned 15 Thunderbolts (P-47). Advanced instructions 
were completed and on the early June 1945 the planes with US and Mexican markings were flying over 
the northern part of Luzon. The First combat mission was over Aritao.  What's interesting was that 
half of their missions were over the Isinai triangle of towns. Aritao, Bambang, and Dupax are the 
only towns where Isinai is spoken.
 
 
 
These were my childhood Stomping grounds. Cagayan Valley was one of the last regions liberated 
from the Japanese. It was also the first beach that the Japanese invaded when they landed in Aparri 
a couple of days after Pearl Harbor. General Yamashita however did not have any plan 
		to escape north. 
They were ready to fight to the last man. The natural fortified mountains surround the valley. The Japanese 
became the Guerrillas and fought close combat in the thick ravines under the cover of the forest’s canopy. 
The brunt of the fighting was now carried by the Filipino guerilla 
		that when the paratrooper parachuted in 
the highland, they were warned not to mistake the Filipinos from the desperate Japanese.  The gunfire that 
echoed in the jungle were heard so distinctly that we named the Japanese’ rifle Ping-pok from its pinging sound. 
Then only passage from the south is thru 
		the Caraballo Mountains. The protracted hunt of the elusive Tiger 
in the jungle cost about 100 Japanese soldiers a day. One of the bloodiest sites of the Pacific land war took 
place and continued in the Kiangan battlefield.  The only tank battle took place when Yamashita realized that 
his remaining tanks were no match against the GI Tanks. He therefore ordered to ambush American tanks by ramming, 
in the tradition of Kamikaze.

 The 25th US Army regiments lost General Dalton from Japanese snipers and Heavy artillery could not be moved easily.
  On May 15, Filipino veteran, Restie Valerio (now living in Jersey City, next door to the Philippine 
he was in his late teen when he joined the liberation party and saw action in Nueva Vizcay.Whenever there 
are Filipino gatherings I have to pull my chair near to listen to his story reinforcing my dim early memories) 
from Malolos, Bulacan relates: General Dalton stood near the top of Balete Pass scanning the lower perimeter 
with his telescope when a shot across the adjacent hill came from Japanese rifle. 
 
 
 
Planes flying over the high mountain therefore provided bombs. The Pacific Campaign was in full swing toward 
the Japanese mainland. The island hopping Macarthur strategy continued north without securing the Cagayan Valley. 
 
  
 

On June 4, four planes from the Mexican squadron took off from Clark Field at 06:45 hour. They flew over Balete Pass toward Aritao by following Highway 5 (this was called Macarthur Highway after the war). They dropped bombs as directed by forward controller. The first battle mission marking the initial baptism of fire on the foreign land, if you don’t count Pancho Villa’s brief excursions in Texas by Mexico. The squadron manifested the bombing run over familiar Nueva Vizcaya names, Santa Fe, Dupax, Indiana, Bambang, Bayombong, Lamut, Solano to Tuguegarao.Yamashita, the tiger of Malaya, abandoned Manila and set up his northern headquarter. The Imperial Army retreated and entrenched to delay the imminent invasion of their homeland. April 16th, Yamashita was forced to remove his headquarters from Baguio further back into the mountains to Banbang.On May 20th, the pressure of the military situation was such that Yamashita had to move his headquarters again--this time to Riangian (I think he meant Kiangan, Japanese tongue favoring the r sound) where he remained until again forced to move on June 18th. His final headquarters establishment was at a place called Rest House No. 9 in the vicinity of Takben, set up on July 22nd, where he remained until ordered by Tokyo to surrender on September 2nd. Yamashita himself carefully recounted the last few days in northern Luzon to his American Defense counsel in the Bilibid Prison (Muntinglupa) while awaiting his war trial. The local men volunteered (Mabungad, Payatos, Ramel etc) and indigenous people of Nueva Vizcaya joined Filipino volunteers from the south in the dangerous end game as the Regular US Army Unit (6th Army) were already engaged in the beachhead of Formosa. Iwo Jima was secured on March 26, and Okinawa landing on April 1, 1945. On the European front Hitler shot himself on April 30. Germany was ready to surrender. A few weeks later the heaviest fighting took place in Kiangan. On Aug 6, a new era of warfare arrived; the first atomic bomb was dropped. Unleashing its new power, it leveled Hiroshima and probably wiped out the Hiroshima Military School attended by General Yamashita. He received his order from the emperor to surrender. The issue of course now is the justification for the use of the bomb. As the heat of that summer in Nueva Vizcaya started to cool down, the heated battle had not yet diminished. Under his command at this point was a jungle-trained strong army between 50,000 to 100,000 waging a war of attrition. The Allies were sweeping the Pacific at incredible speed, leapfrogging to the Island of Japan itself. The Imperial Japanese Military however held up longer than the allies when they invaded the Philippines. Bataan fell before the heat of summer. One might argue that at this point Japan had already lost the war, but Yamashita was not retreating to Cagayan Valley to escape to Aparri where his predecessor, General Homma landed. It was an easy out, all he had to do was to follow the stream: Cagayan River flows towards Japan. It was a strategic move; he knew inland fighting was in his favor though he heard the successful American amphibious assaults. Nueva Vizcaya was suited for him: the jungle-experienced Japanese rearguard units were on high ground. It was completely landlocked and free from naval bombardment.

 

One of the unknown facts of WW2 was the heavy toll suffered by the indigenous tribes during the war. They lived in the
 heart of the jungle oblivious of world politics. They were forced out or simply and silently executed.
 According to Renato Rosaldo (Harvard Professor, foremost author of headhunting),the Ilongots lost about one-third 
of their population, primarily in June of 1945, when the US army forced retreating Japanese soldiers into the Ilongot 
hills (which they called uninhabited).The Japanese were starving and in disarray at that point.

To view original hut, shot by the mountaineering club as they arrived in Lusod, the website reads…we met some Ibaloi tribesmen. We stopped for rest and I took the opportunity to take photographs of a native house, one of the two remaining authentic huts spared by the Japanese when they burned the village in World War II. http://www.stormpages.com/mysticwaters/ugu/ugu6.html

 I met the daughter of the most famous guerilla fighter in Mountain Province in New York, the former Congressman Duyan. (Stories later)

 

July 4, 1945 General MacArthur declared to the world that the Philippines was liberated.

 

Just few days later, early July, a newly developed firebomb was used. The Napalm bombs (gasoline gelled with soap) dropped over the Kiangan Trail were just the beginning. The horrifying graphics followed the Korean conflict, extensively dropped in the Vietnam  delta, lately captured by TV cameramen over the caves in Afghanistan.

 

 The warriors were just gearing up for closer combat.  In order to save lives on both sides, a Japanese-American serviceman of the US Army Military Intelligence Service (MIS) unit announced over a megaphone in Japanese that the emperor has accepted the unconditional surrender. His counterparts however thought it was a trick and even angered the kamikaze spirit. He was targeted and was shot as a traitor by an avenging Japanese suicide squad that had slipped the enemy lines. The actual day of surrender of Yamashita did not go without a hitch. In the confusion the Filipino soldiers started shooting. The shots might have been made in anger, they were told to keep away. The Japanese soldiers buried more than the famous Yamashita red (Gold) Restie added, he saw the prisoners had no personal effects with them. Watches, rings, and other personal belongings were all gone although he noticed fresh skin marks indicating wear. Almost all the Japanese women took their own lives in the sharp ravine. Captain Thomas accepted the surrender, as there were no other senior officers present. Today the hunt for Yamashita gold continues in the mountains of the Philippines.  Kirang Pass, a monument in honor of the gallantry of the Japanese Soldiers during World War II, was rebuilt in the region to attract local and foreign tourists. Tourism Regional Director Blessida Diwa said the shrine was built in 1978 by Rakunsankai Society of Japan which is made up of glazed stone. A memorial was engraved in the tablet in Japanese and English languages. The shrine was called Kirang Pass because it stands amidst mountains and Hills right in the center of barangay Kirang, Aritao in Nueva Viscaya. The regional Director revealed that Kirang Pass was the scene of one of the bloodiest encounters between the Japanese soldiers and the Allied Forces during World War II. Diwa said that the area is visited by Japanese students and tourists, not only for its historical beauty but also to remind them how Filipino ancestors were able to survive the furious war that existed between the Japanese soldiers and the Allied forces. With further developments, the area would attract historians and students not only in the country but also from abroad to come for a study about war and to reflect on what happened during World War II, she said. This news was reported by the PNA.

 

 

The Filipino reinforcements in the liberation were issued arms and Received Mustering pay in Bacnotan, La Union. I remember going to college in Manila using the veterans educational Benefit earned by my father. Similar benefits enabled thousands of US soldiers and sailors who participated the in the western Pacific theater. I think this was the most successful post war program invented by the United States. Thousands of veterans took advantage and became professionals and CEOs. On these Memorial Day let us pay tribute to veterans of foreign war who paid the ultimate price and those who survived.

 

 The pilots from the 201st Mexican Squadron returned to Mexico and became the senior air force officers and a few were instrumental in flying commercial planes.  The MEAF was disbanded in Dec 1, 1945 but some of the replacement pilots reached the rank of General in the Mexican Air Force.

 
Waves/Dates of Invasion (WW2 Donald Heiferman)
(For an analogous historical event, in August 6 1945 the atomic bomb was dropped in Hiroshima.) 
 
Villa Verdi Trail (Colonel Merle H. Howe, 32nd Infantry Division)
 http://colonel.howe.home.att.net/villaverde.htm
6 August 1945 - Atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, Japan. 



9 August 1945 - Atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki, Japan. 



10 August 1945 - Japan offers to surrender without condition. 



15 August 1945 - The 32nd Division received orders to discontinue aggressive action. The Japanese troops 
facing them did not get the message and continued fighting for several days. 



20 August 1945 (?) - An American pilot who had been shot down was returned to American lines. He had been 
interrogated at the Headquarters of Tomoyuki Yamashita, General, Imperial Japanese Army, Highest Commander of 
the Imperial Japanese Army in the Philippines. 



21 August 1945 - The returned pilot dropped a message from Major General Gill, division commander, to Yamashita 
at his headquarters asking if he was ready to arrange a surrender of his forces. 



26 August 1945 - Yamashita had a message delivered to an outpost of the 3rd Battalion, 128th Infantry opening a 
formal surrender correspondence
 

Double V Day

 

Victory in Vizcaya (high ground) The American Legion Departed but not without leaving new English software argons and military hardwares: bivouacs, amphibians, jeeps, bayonets, canteens, etc. Scrapnel in the heart and minds, those who did not survived were buried. The little warriors (guerrilla) went back to farming as the rainy season approached. They found tons of expended shell as the land was tilted.

 

GI wrote to  homeown USA about the magnificent rice terraces and lowland paddies the saw along the battlefield.. The boys giving the two finger victory signs as the slow moving carabaw mellowed in the water trapped in bomb crate. Restie unit  crossed the wide Magat River in a make shift bamboo raft and in Dupax saw  the St Ferrer Church later. 

 

.biv·ou·ac (b¹v“›-²k”, b¹v“w²k”) n. 1. A temporary encampment often in an unsheltered area. --biv·ou·ac intr.v. biv·ou·acked, biv·ou·ack·ing, biv·ou·acs also biv·ou·acks. To camp in a bivouac. [French, from German dialectal beiwacht, supplementary night watch : bei-, beside (from Middle High German bi-, from Old High German; see ambhi below) + Wacht, watch, vigil (from Middle High German wahte, from Old High German wahta; see weg- below).]  ambhi. Important derivatives are: by1, be-, ambi-, amphi-. ambhi. Also ©bhi. Around.I. Probably derived from ant-bhi. See ant-. 1. Reduced form *bhi. a. BY1; ABAFT, BUT, from Old English bi, bº, be, by; b. BE-, from Old English be-, on all sides, be-, also intensive prefix.

 

American English returned to its old glory, Solano High School named Dalton School and the gateway to 
the Valley was forever changed to Dalton Pass in honor of the General Dalton who spearheaded the liberation. 
The famous two-century-old baroque Spanish church San Vicente Ferrer might have survived the bombing during 
the liberation not from divine intervention from heaven. These aviadores delos Mexico were able to recognize 
it as the shrine, the same adobe type red brick construction that replaced the Incas temple in Mexico. 
The Japanese took shelter in my grandfather's house in the village and that was therefore bombed to the ground. 
Today however the San Vicente Ferrer Church in Dupax still stands to remind us of history. 
 
The committee on monuments and sites of the Philippines (NCCA) has nominated the 
church for restoration and adopted it as their flagship project for the 
millennium, according to the Philippine News (PNA). For a structure to 
be considered a national cultural treasure, it must be a unique object 
found locally, possessing outstanding historical, cultural, artistic and/or 
scientific value deemed significant and important. Most of the colonial 
churches built in the 17th and 18th centuries boast of architectural 
designs that used indigenous materials such as corals, adobe, sawali 
and local hard wood. These churches also served as centers for artistic 
development, like liturgical music, sculpture (carving of retablo, 
pulpits, altars), painting, gilding, silver smithing better and
Others.
 
 

You can read the complete story of the Operations of the 201st Squadron (Mexican Airforce in WW2)

http://papers.maxwell.af.mil/projects/ay1997/acsc/97-0609J.pdf
 
 
The following is translation from the Spanish air log.
MEXICAN AIR FORCE SQUADRON 201

The mission’s reports are found at the San Joaquin Public Library in California .

Detail are available at

http://www.sjvls.lib.ca.us/sjvls/bens/bf006mx.html

Mexico supported the Allied cause in World War II in a number of ways, the most direct being the participation of the 201st Squadron of the Mexican Expeditionary Air Force in the Pacific Theater of Operations.

The following "brief on the operations" was manually transcribed from a microfilmed 1946 US War Department typescript, designated MIS 251677(SSC). Both the original cover letter and distribution list have been omitted. Barring transcription errors, the grammar, capitalization, punctuation and spelling (and misspellings) are preserved from the original document.

For a printer-friendly plain text version of this document, click here.

 
 
TRANSLATION
 
 
 Mission No. 1:                                      4 June 1945
 
        The area of Aritao was alerted.  Four airplanes took off at 0645; flew 
 over the target from 0730 till 0750; and landed at 0845.
 
        The controller directed bombing and straffing enemy positions situated 
 along Highway 5.  Targets 19, 20, and 21 were bombed with the bombs falling in 
 the area of the target.  The controller reported very good results from this 
 mission.
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 
 
 Mission No. 2:                                      4 June 1945
 
        The area over Aritao was alerted.  Four airplanes took off at 0715 and
 flew over the target from 0800 till 0830; landing at 0915.
 
        The planes contacted the Controller from the Aritao region, who ordered
 them to bomb and strafe South Aritao; the bombs covered 3/4 of the objective. 
 The Controller reported that the bombing and straffing had been good.
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 
 
 Mission No. 3:                                      4 June 1945
 
        To bomb and strafe the area of Vwacs.  Four airplanes took off at 1115;
 flew over the target at 1200 till 1230; and landed at 1315.
 
        They were directed by the Controller to bomb and strafe the area of
 Vwacs, to the West of Rio Santa Fe.  Bombs fell in the target area, damaging
 one building and wiping out a machine-gun nest.
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 
 
 Mission No. 4:                                      4 June 1945
 
        To bomb and strafe the Vwacs area. Four airplanes took off at 1145; 
 flew over the target at 1200 till 1230; and landed at 1300.
 
        They were directed by the Controller to bomb and strafe the Vwacs area,
 West of the bridge of Rio Santa Fe.  The bombs fell in the target area but the
 results were not observed due to heavy foliage.
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 
 
 Mission No. 5:                                      4 June 1945
 
        To bomb and strafe the Vwacs area. Four airplanes took off at 1215; 
 flew over the target at 1300 till 1330; landed at 1415.
 
        They were directed by the Controller to bomb and strafe enemy troop con-
 centrations situated to the North of the Vwacs area.  Bombs fell in the target
 area but the results were not observed due to heavy underbrush.
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 
                                      252677 1                                

 

 
 
 Mission No. 6:                                      5 June 1945
 
        The area over Aritao was alerted.  Four airplanes took off at 0650; flew
 over the target at 7,000 ft. from 0710 till 0750; landed at 0830.
 
        The Controller had no support at the target and ordered the Squadron 
 leader to bomb the town of Dupax, flying from South to North and dropping the 
 bombs from an altitude of approximately 2,000 feet.  The bombs were well dis-
 tributed in the Western part of the town; two of them exploded in a good 
 position in a large building located just south of the intersection of two 
 principal highways on the NW side of Dupax.  There was an explosion in the SW 
 corner of the building but it was not completely destroyed.  Small fires were 
 produced instantly and black smoke was observed in the point of the impact.  
 The results were not observed due to the thickness of the underbrush.  
 Friendly troops and vehicles were seen on Highway 5 to the South of the 
 principal bridge which crosses the SW part of the town of Aritao.
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 
 
 Mission No. 7:                                      5 June 1945
 
        The area over Aritao was alerted.  Four airplanes took off at 0715; 
 flew over the target at 6,000 feet, from 0755 till 0825; landed at 0910.
 
        They were directed by the Controller to bomb and strafe enemy positions 
 on the Western side of the Canyon (? Canada), and on the North side of Highway 
 5 in Baganan, and at 4,000 yards over Aritao the bombs were dropped in the 
 target area and on both sides of Highway 5 between Baganan and Indiana.  No 
 results were observed due to the thickness of trees and underbrush.  The 
 Controller said that it had been a good mission and reported that our troops 
 had entered the town.
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 
 
 Mission No. 8:                                      5 June 1945
 
        To give direct support to the ground forces in the Aritao area.  Two 
 airplanes took off at 0745; flew over the target at 6,000 feet, from 0830 to 
 0900; landed at 0950.
 
        They were directed by the Controller to bomb and strafe enemy artillery
 positions and possible tank concentrations in a ravine on the West side of 
 Highway 5, about 1 mile to the North of the town of Indiana, and enemy troop
 concentrations on the West side of the Highway 5 in the same town.  The 
 Controller reported that the target area was perfectly covered and very 
 difficult to observe due to the great amount of underbrush and dust over the
 objective.  The aircraft straffed both targets and after their passing, small 
 fires of short duration broke out; the small fire arms which were stationed in 
 the buildings of the town of Indiana were wiped out.
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 
 
 Mission No. 9:                                      5 June 1945
 
        The area over Aritao was alerted.  Two airplanes took off at 1115; flew
 over the target at 8,000 feet at 1215 till 1255; and landed at 1330.
 
                                      252677 2                            

 

 
 
        This mission was made in the Aritao area and completed in the area of 
 Santo Domingo.  The Controller assigned the target on the Southwest, in the 
 region of Bayombong; and the area was bombed to the NE of Highway 5 and 
 parallel to the main highway.  The bomb passes were made from South to North,
 dropping the bombs at approximately 1,500 feet the target was covered in an
 excellent position by the bombs.  Two straffing passes were made in the area 
 with the only visible result of the bombing and straffing being various weeds 
 on fire, which remained burning in the left area.
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 
 Mission No. 10:                                     5 June 1945
 
        The area over Aritao was alerted.  Two airplanes took off/; flew over
 the target at 6,000 feet from 1245 till 1345; and landed at 1415.  at 12:15
 
        They were directed by the Controller to bomb and strafe enemy positions
 on the East side of Highway 5 at 1,000 yards to the South of Bambang. The 
 bombs covered the area of the Southwest region and were dispersed in the 
 summit of the Hill.  This region was heavily strafed and the results were not
 observed due to heaviness of foliage.
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 
 Mission No. 11:                                     6 June 1945
 
        The area over Aritao was alerted.  Three airplanes took off at 1215; 
 flew over the target from 1245 till 1330; and landed at 1420.
 
        They were directed by the Controller to bomb and strafe artillery 
 positions situated 5,000 yards to the West of Highway 5, one mile SW of the 
 Bambang highway.  They strafed opportune targets along the Main Highway, 
 setting one building afire and destroying an anti-aircraft position.
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 
 Mission No. 12:                                     6 June 1945
 
        The area over Bambang was alerted.  Two airplanes took off at 0620; 
 flew over the target at 6,000 feet from 0650 till 0755; and landed at 0820.
 
        The Controller instructed bombing and attacking enemy positions in a
 canyon covered with foliage, situated on the West side of the Highway 5,
 1,000 yards South of Bambang.  Bombs were dropped in the target area which was
 indicated to the aircraft by smoke.  The buildings in the area of the 
 objective were destroyed and smoke was observed coming from the buildings.  
 This region was heavily strafed but damages were not seen due to darkness of 
 foliage; the only thing which could be observed were some lights like 
 explosions during the attack in Bambang.  The ground patrols reported to the 
 Controller that the bombs fell exactly where they were needed.
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 
                                      252677 3                            

 

 
 
 Mission No. 13:                                     6 June 1945
 
        The area over Bombang was alerted.  Two airplanes took off at 0620;
 flew over the target at 0710 till 0740; landed at 0820.
 
        The Controller directed bombing and straffing enemy positions along 
 the Canyon to the East side of Highway 5, at 1,000 yards South of Bambang. One
 building within the target was destroyed, and debris and smoke were visible.
 This same region was heavily straffed, but the results were not observed due
 to the thickness of foliage.  The bombing and straffing passes were made from
 South to North at an altitude of 2,000 feet.  Patrons of the ground forces 
 reported to the Controller that the bombs fell exactly where they were needed.
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 
 Mission No. 14:                                     6 June 1945
 
        To give direct support to the ground troops in the Bambang area.  Two
 airplanes took off at 0715; flew over the target from 0800 till 0830; landed at
 0915.
 
        They were directed by the Controller to strafe and bomb enemy troop and
 artillery positions, on the East side of the hills about one mile West of 
 Bambang.  The bombs were dropped in the area of the objective, this region 
 being heavily strafed, and numerous and small brush fires were started.  The
 Controller reported very good bombing.
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 
 Mission No. 15:                                     6 June 1945
 
        The area over Bambang was alerted.  Four airplanes took off at 0750;
 flew over the target from 0830 till 0900; landed at 0950.
 
        They were directed by the Controller to bomb enemy troop concentrations
 located in the East Hill in the decline of the mountain between 1,000 and 
 1,500 yards WSW of Bambang.  The bombing passes were made from SW to NW, 
 releasing the bombs at an altitude of approximately 1,500 feet.  The bombs
 were well distributed in the target area.  Stores of recent construction were 
 observed in the hills to the NW of Bambang.  The Controller said that the
 results were very good.
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 
 Mission No. 16:                                     6 June 1945
 
        The area over Bambang was alerted.  Three airplanes took off at 1110;
 flew over the target at 6,000 feet from 1140 till 1220; landed at 1300.
 
        They were directed by the Controller to bomb and strafe enemy positions
 located along the groves of the bridge on the South of Highway 5, 1,000 yards
 West of Bayombong; all the bombs were released in the target area, covering
 the bridge and the side of the hills, but the results were not observed due to 
 heavy foliage.  The Controller ordered the straffing of a house hidden in the 
 same
 
                                      252677 4                            

 

        
 region, and after their straffing they saw that the house began to burn.  They 
 also strafed the groves on the West side of Highway 5, at 4,000 yards North of 
 Zolano.
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 
 Mission No. 17:                                     6 June 1945
 
        The area over Bambang was alerted.  Four airplanes took off at 1200; 
 flew over the target at 9,000 feet from 1245 to 1315; landed at 1415.
 
        The target designated by the Controller was in the mountains Northwest 
 of Santo Domingo and in the hillsides of the Bayambang.  The bombing passes 
 were made from East to West, dropping the bombs at an altitude of approx-
 imately 2,000 feet.  The bombs were well distributed in the target area but the
 results were not observed due to heavy foliage.
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 
 Mission No. 18:                                     7 June 1945
 
        The area over Infanta was alerted.  Six airplanes took off at 0615; flew
 over the target from 0700 till 0730; landed at 0815.
 
        The target was not attacked due to bad weather and the bombs had to be 
 dropped in the Lamut Bay.
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 
 Mission No. 19:                                     7 June 1945
 
        The area over Infanta was alerted.  Six airplanes took off at 1400; flew
 over the target from 1445 till 1515; landed at 1600.
 
        The target could not be attacked due to bad weather and in view of this
 fact the Controller indicated another objective in the slopes of the Rio 
 Anibongan, located 3,000 yards Southwest of the outlet of the river.  The bombs
 fell in the target area and the Controller could not observe the results of this
 mission due to the objective being too far away.
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 
 Mission No. 20:                                     10 June 1945
 
        To give direct support in the Marikina River region.  Seven airplanes 
 took off at 0710; flew over the target at 5,000 feet from 0740 till 0910; landed 
 at 0940.
 
        They were directed by the Controller to bomb enemy positions located in 
 the waterfall West of the Panas Mountains.  The bombs were perfectly distributed
 over the target area but the results were not observed due to the heaviness of
 the foliage covering the area.  Two airplanes were directed by the Controller to
 strafe the region where they had made bombing passes.
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 
 Mission No. 21:                                     10 June 1945
 
        To give direct support to the Marikina River basin.  Seven airplanes took
 off at 1220; flew over the target at 5,000 feet from 1250 until 1400; landed at
 1430.
 
                                      252677 5                            

 

        
 
 
        The mission was incomplete due to bad weather conditions; the bombs were 
 dropped in the sea of the Tabones Island.
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 
 Mission No. 22:                                     11 June 1945
 
        The area over Ozcariz was alerted and the River Lamut mission was
 completed.  Eight aircraft took off at 0800; flew over the target at 5,000 feet
 from 0830 to 0945; landed at 1025.
 
        The Controller directed bombing of the North region of Osacariz, in the
 intersection of Highway 4 and Lamut River.  The leader made an observation
 flight over the target, and in the consecutive bombing and straffing passes
 along the highway 4 and South of the River Lamut bridge, flew from NNW to SSE. 
 The results were not observed due to the heaviness of the underbrush.
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 
 Mission No. 23:                                     11 June 1945
 
        The area over Oscariz was alerted and this mission was completed
 supporting the Payawan area.  Five aircraft took off at 1130; flew over the
 target at 7,000 feet from 1200 to 1300; landed at 1335.
 
        The Controller directed them to bomb and strafe the enemy troop
 concentrations which were blocking Highway 4, at approximately 2,200 yards WNW
 of Payawan.  The leader made a reconnaissance flight from SE to NW and then the
 Squadron bombed and strafed both sides of the highway.  The Controller reported
 that the mission had been good.
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 
 Mission No. 24:                                     12 June 1945
 
        The area over the Marikina River basin was alerted; this mission was
 completed at approximately 2,000 yards NE of the Mapatad mountain and 1,500
 yards NE of the Campana mountain.  Six aircraft took off at 0900; flew over the
 target at 5,000 feet from 0930 to 1015; landed at 1100.
 
        They were directed by the Controller to bomb and strafe enemy troop
 concentrations in the Mapatad mountain region and Campana Mountain.  The leader
 made a reconnaissance flight from W to E and in the following flight the
 Squadron dropped bombs in the target area with excellent results.  After
 bombing the enemy concentrations they strafed a position indicated to them by
 an L-5 aircraft.  They flew NE to SW and the pilots saw their bombs fall in
 the region indicated by the L-5.  One bomb exploded 400 yards NW of the target
 between the East side of the Manadlan river.  Friendly artillery observed fires
 NE of the Peray River fork, in the Panas mountains, Cariba mountain, and the
 Malac mountains.
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 
 Mission No. 25:                                     12 June 1945
 
        The Ballete Pass was alerted.  The mission was not completed due to bad
 weather.  Seven aircraft took off at 1430; flew over the target at 6,000 feet
 from 1535 till 1555; and landed at 1630.
 
                                      252677 6                            

 

        
 
        When the leader was flying over the target he asked the Controller for
 instructions but the objective was very overcast and as the Controller had no
 alternatives, he ordered the bombs dropped in the Tabones Island.
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 
 Mission No. 26:                                     13 June 1945
 
        To give direct support in the Marikina River area.  Five aircraft took
 off at 0830; flew over the target at 8,500 feet from 0910 to 0930; and landed
 at 1030.
 
        They were directed by the Controller to bomb a ravine in the Marikina
 River area.  While they were bombing the objective, the second airplane of the
 second element strafed the area during his pass.  The bombs fell directly into
 the target.  One bomb fell 400 yards NNW of the smoke that was marking the
 target.  The results were not observed due to heavy foliage.  One airplane
 dropped its bombs in the Laguna de Bay because it could not release them over
 the objective.
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 
 Mission No. 27:                                     13 June 1945
 
        The area over Infanta was alerted.  Seven airplanes took off at 1240;
 flew over the target from 1320 to 1325; landed at 1500.
 
        The leader contacted the Controller and they notified him that there was
 no target in that area.  The Controller told him that the previous night the
 command had been informed that said mission was ineffective.  The bombs were
 released in the Bogac Bay.
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 
 Mission No. 28:                                     14 June 1945
 
        The area over Montálban was alerted.  Ten airplanes took off at 0730;
 flew over the target at 6,000 feet from 0800 to 0845; landed at 0915.
 
        The leader contacted controller "TROPHY" when arriving at Montálban
 area.  The Controller ordered that he contact the Controller of that area;
 the leader contacted controller "TROPHY" 2, who indicated to them the target,
 but the leader could not find the designation of the target.  The leader tried
 to contact controller "TROPHY" but radio contact was almost nill.  Bombs were
 dropped on Tabones Island.
 
        One airplane was returned because of mechanical failure and its wing
 accompanied it to drop bombs on Manila Bay.
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 
 Mission No. 29:                                      15 June 1945
 
        To bomb and strafe enemy concentrations, warehouses and munition dumps
 at Tuguegarao.  Nine airplanes took off at 0800; flew over the target at 5,000
 feet from 0900 to 0930; landed at 1030.  (One aircraft landed at 0830 due to
 mechnical failure.)
 
                                      252677 7                            

 

        
 
        They were directed by the Controller to bomb enemy concentrations at
 Tuguegarao.  The leader of the Squadron made two passes from East to West in
 order to recognize the objective and on the following passes they bombed and
 strafed said target; it was observed that one bomb fell directly on the West
 side of the building, which was one of the designated targets, another bomb was 
 dropped on the objective and exploded approsimately in the Southwest corner of
 the instersection point at some 400 yards.  Five minutes later when they ended
 the mission, the leader noticed blue smoke at approximately 1,500 feet.  The 
 Controller reported two prolonged explosions in the target area.  One aircraft
 failed to release its bombs and dropped them on Lingayen Gulf.
 
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 
 Mission No. 30:                                     15 June 1945
 
        The area over Antípolo was alerted.  Nine airplanes took off at 1230;
 flew over the target at 7,000 feet from 1320 to 1400; landed at 1430. (Three 
 airplanes landed at 1315 without participating in the mission due to mechanical 
 failure. They released their bombs in the Laguna de Bay.)
 
        The leader contacted the Controller in the Antípolo region, who directed
 him to bomb and strafe enemy positions at approximately 1,200 feet.  ESE of San
 Andres the bombs fell on the target area.  They strafed the East side of the
 gorge of said town.  The Controller reported good results from the bombing.
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 
 Mission No. 31:                                     16 June 1945
 
        The area over Infanta was alerted.  Ten airplanes took off at 1145; flew
 over the target at 5,000 feet from 1235 to 1315.  They landed at 1350.
 
        The leader contacted the Controller of the Infanta region, who informed
 them that the assigned target was occupied by United States troops.  The
 Controller assigned them another target along Ikdan Creek, where there were
 enemy concentrations.  They made bombing passes from NE to SW along Rio Ikdan
 creek.  They observed two large explosions which produced brown smoke; they
 made three strafing passes in this area.  The Controller reported good results
 on this mission.
 
        They received enemy fire from mortars "MG" and from small fire arms; the
 firing came from both sides of the river and along the beach.  Two airplanes
 were hit - one from mortar fire, and the other from small firearms.
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 
 Mission No. 32:                                     17 June 1945
 
        Bombardment of enemy concentration in the vicinity of Payawan.  (North
 and Center of Luzon).  Nine airplanes took off at 1315; flew over the target at
 5,000 feet from 1430 to 1500; landed at 1545.  (One airplane returned due to
 mechanical failure.)
 
        Controller "BYGONE" with the help of Controller "DAYSI BLUE" directed
 them to bomb and strafe enemy concentrations and a convoy, located approximately
 6,000 yards NE of Payawan.  The pilots saw the bombs fall on the ob-
 
                                      252677 8                            

 

        
 
 jective.  After making strafing passes on the convoy they saw two trucks catch
 fire.  The airplanes were fired at by large mortars and close-range guns. 
 Two planes were hit but suffered only slight damage.
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 
 Mission No. 33:                                     17 June 1945
 
        Bombardment of enemy positions in the Zolanga area and in the vicinity of
 Bambang.  At 0730 six airplanes took off; flew over the target from 0920 till
 0930; landed at 1000.  (One pilot had an accident upon taking off from the
 runway and was burned on the neck.  The aircraft caught fire and the wing bombs
 did not explode.  Another airplane did not take off due to mechanical failure.)
 
        The Controller directed them to bomb enemy troop concentrations located
 approximately 6,500 yards WSW of Bambang.  The leader made a pass in order to
 familiarize himself with the objective, and on the following passes the bombs
 were released in the area marked with phosphorous by the Controller; the pilots
 saw the bombs fall in the target area but they were not able to observe the
 results due to the thickness of the foliage.  The Controller reported two long
 bombs but in the target area, and that the other bombs fell directly on the
 target.
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 
 Mission No. 34:                                     18 June 1945
 
        Bombardment of enemy concentrations along Lenatin River.  Five airplanes
 took off at 1200; flew over the target at 4,000 feet from 1245 to 1330; landed
 at 1400.
 
        The leader contacted the Controller in the Lenatin River region, who
 directed them to bomb enemy positions in the bed of said river; an L-5 type
 aircraft marked the target for them with a phosphorus bomb.  The bombs were
 released directly on the target.  The pilots did not see the result of the
 bombing due to the thickness of the underbrush.  The Controller had ordered
 that they were not to strafe the area which they bombed and marked a target to
 be strafed a mile South of the bombing.  They made two subsequent passes from
 South to North, strafing both sides of the river bed beginning from the initial
 point of the bombed area.  Two machine-gun nests were destroyed on their first
 pass, but when the airplanes began the second pass enemy machine-guns fired
 again.  The Controller reported excellent results on this mission.
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 
 Mission No. 35:                                     18 June 1945
 
        Enemy concentrations on Lenatin River were to be bombed.  Seven
 airplanes took off at 0730; flew over the target at 7,000 feet from 0805 to
 0845; landed at 0945.
 
        The leader contacted the Controller in the Lenatin River region, who
 directed them to bomb and strafe enemy positions on the East side of said
 river; the objective was perfectly marked by an L-5 type aircraft.  They saw
 all the bombs fall on the target but it was difficult to observe the results
 due to
 
                                      252677 9                            

 

 
 the thickness of underbrush.  The leader made two passes from South to North,
 and on the first pass they bombed and strafed the targets; on subsequent passes
 they strafed the area of the objective.  The controller reported excellent
 results on this mission.
 

Further war documents related to NuevaVizcaya and Cagayan Valley :

From: the 25th Infantry Division of the USS ARMY(http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/matrix/25ID/25ID-WW2-OB.htm)

 

21 Feb 45- 
13 May 45

Div engaged in opns in Caraballo Mountains. Drove up corridor, through which National Hwy 5 passes, fr San Jose to Balete Pass, and adv into Santa Fe at S entrance to Cagayen Valley.

 

Visit: http://www.thedropzone.org/pacific/aparri.html

 

Medal of honor earned in Cagayan:

http://www.mishalov.com/Atkins_Thomas.html

 

End of the War stories-FRANKEL-Y SPEAKING ABOUT WORLD WAR II IN THE SOUTH PACIFIC by Stanley A. Frankel

http://www.frankel-y.com/tape017.htm

 

The Last Warriors (Strugglers)

http://www.wanpela.com/holdouts/registry.html

 

32nd “Red Arrow” Infantry Division 

http://members.aol.com/Sarge000tb/32-ww2f.html

 

Yamashita Gold-Seagrave

http://web.singnet.com.sg/~twells/seagrave.htm